The history of tinned food begins around 200 years ago. The discovery that food could be preserved in airtight containers is normally credited to the French confectioner, Nicolas-François Appert (1749-1841). He wrote a book about his experiments L’Art de Conserver Pendant Plusieur Années Toute les Substances Animales et Végétales (The Art of Preserving Animal and Vegetable Substances for Many Years) and, in January 1810, he won 12,000 Francs for his invention. A scientific understanding of bacteria didn’t come until the mid-19th century so Monsieur Appert’s method was based on knowledge of traditional preservation techniques and careful observation. Despite his cleverness, I think that, the real heroes of tinned food were the people who developed his idea.
First there was Peter Durand who suggested metal instead of Appert’s glass jars. He filed a patent for his tins in August 1810. Next there was Bryan Donkin (1768-1855) who, with two partners, John Hall and Mr. Gamble, acquired this British patent. In 1813 the firm Donkin, Hall and Gamble set up the world’s first tin can factory in Blue Anchor Lane, Bermondsey, London. The tins they made were large, heavy and sealed by hand soldering. There is a photo of one of their tins here. During the 19th century the process of making tin cans was mechanised and later automated. These changes meant that tinned food moved from being something bought only by polar explorers and the armed forces and became an everyday domestic staple.
Rather bizarrely the tin opener did not appear until 1855 when Robert Yates, a cutler and surgical instrument maker based in Middlesex and my final tin can hero, made a lever or claw tin opener. Before then tins were often opened with a hammer and chisel.